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|موضوع: Arab Open University Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES EL320 TMACOVER FORM (2015/2016)/ First Semester Branch: Program: English Language and Literature Course Title: Course Code: EL320 Student Name: Student ID: Section N الأربعاء ديسمبر 02, 2015 11:15 am|| |
Arab Open University
Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES
EL320 TMACOVER FORM (2015/2016)/ First Semester
Branch: Program: English Language and Literature
Course Title: Course Code: EL320
Student Name: Student ID:
Section Number: Tutor Name:
to TMA STUDENT MARK
10% for content : a max of 10 marks marks deducted for lang. & communication errors: a maximum of 3 marks Earned Mark
Notes on plagiarism:
A. According to the Arab Open University By-laws, “the following acts represent cases of cheating and plagiarism:
Verbatim copying of printed material and submitting them as part of TMAs without proper academic acknowledgement and documentation.
Verbatim copying of material from the Internet, including tables and graphics.
Copying other students’ notes or reports.
Using paid or unpaid material prepared for the student by individuals or firms.
B. Penalties for plagiarism ranges from failure in the TMA to expulsion from the university.
Declaration: I hereby declare that the submitted TMA is my own work and I have not copied any other person’s work or plagiarized in any other form as specified above.
TMA feedback: (PT3)
[Prepared by: Asim Ilyas]
1. Read the following English text carefully, and then translate it into Arabic.
A. Mention some basic linguistic and stylistic features of the text.
B. Make a list of the difficult words which you came across in the text and had to consult the dictionary about.
C. Make a list of the sentences that you found difficulty in translating them in relation to structure.
THE GOLDEN AGE OF ARAB SCIENCE (750–1258)
The Arab world covers a vast geographic area, comprising many different countries in Asia and Africa. The contemporary world owes much of its progress in all fields of human intellectual activity, including medicine, to Arabic culture, especially the advancements made during the Golden Age of Arabic-Islamic science (8th to 13th centuries C.E. ).
The Islamic state was formed in 622, when the Prophet moved from Mecca to Medina. Within a century after his death (632 C.E.) a large part of the planet, from southern Europe throughout North Africa to Central Asia and on to India, was controlled by and/or influenced by the new Arabic-Muslim Empire. A center of flourishing civilization (al-Andalus) was created. Another center emerged in Baghdad from the Abbasids, who ruled part of the Islamic world during a historic period later characterized as the “Golden Age” (∼750 to 1258 C.E.).
Translators were invited to Baghdad, where scientists and researchers studied the past and created the future. The result of their work was impressive progress in all sectors of science. The rulers of Islamic Spain, in an attempt to surpass Baghdad, recruited scholars who made contributions of paramount importance to science, medicine, technology, philosophy, and art. Communication became easier because the Muslim Empire united extensive geographic areas. Scholars travelled to teach or share ideas. Furthermore, the Arabic language became a unifying factor. Translations from Greek, Latin, and Chinese into Arabic were innumerable, thus removing language barriers for scholars. During the same period, Arabs learned from the Chinese how to produce paper and books became more available. Libraries were established in Cairo, Aleppo, Baghdad, and urban centers in Iran, central Asia, and Spain, while bookshops with thousands of titles opened in several cities. Finally, The House of Wisdom, an academic institution serving as a university, was established in Baghdad in 1004 C.E.
During that period, Islamic medicine went through impressive developments, which later influenced medical education and practice in Europe. Numerous Arab pioneers are mentioned in medical history. Among the most famous are: Yuhanna ibn Massuwayh who performed dissections and described allergy; Abu Bakr Muhummad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi (Rhazes) who differentiated smallpox from measles, described the laryngeal branch of the recurrent nerve, introduced mercurial ointments and hot moist compresses in surgery, investigated psychosomatic reactions, and wrote the famous Al-Hawi, a medical encyclopedia of 30 volumes; Az-Zahrawi, known as the father of surgery, introduced the use of cotton and catgut, and described extra-uterine pregnancy, cancer of the breast, and the sex-linked inheritance of hemophilia; Ibn Sina (Avicenna) who differentiated meningitis from other neurologic diseases, described anthrax and tuberculosis, introduced urethral drug instillation, stressed the importance of hygiene, and dietetics, and the holistic approach to the patient [his work al-Qanun fil Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), represented the absolute authority in medicine for 500 years. Progress was apparent in all medical fields, including anatomy, surgery, anaesthesia, cardiology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, bacteriology, urology, obstetrics, neurology, psychiatry (including psychotherapy), hygiene, dietetics, and dentistry.
EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND SCIENCE
Arabic medical studies consisted of initial training in such basic sciences as alchemy, pharmacognosy, anatomy, and physiology, which were followed by clinical training in hospitals, where students performed physical examinations, attended ward rounds, and clinical lectures. Upon completion of training, future physicians were required to pass oral and practical exams in order to be licensed. Medicine was not only a profession or science, but also a philosophical attitude based upon religion and culture, obeying codes of ethics characterizing the physician’s behavior and obligations to patients, colleagues, and the community.
At the same time, hospitals (Bimaristans), developed all over the Arab world. No sexual, religious, social, or economic discrimination interfered with patients’ treatment. Detailed medical records were kept. These hospitals were adequately equipped, and had both inpatient and outpatient units. Small, mobile hospital units were also created to serve distant areas and battle fields. The first known hospital was established in Damascus in 706 C.E., while the most important one, located in Baghdad, was established in 982 C.E.
Arab scholars became acquainted with herbs, experimented with anesthetics, developed techniques such as distillation, crystallization, solution, and calcinations and introduced new drugs. The most famous manual was The Comprehensive Book on Materia Medica and Foodstuffs, an alphabetical guide to over 1400 simples, written by Ibn al-Baytar. The first pharmacies were established in Baghdad in 754 C.E. In the 12th century C.E., pharmacology became an independent discipline. The impact of Arabic pharmacology in Europe was tremendous for centuries.
Astonishing progress was made in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and other fields of science. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry flourished. Among arithmeticians and algebraists, al-Khwarazmi was considered the greatest. Finally, trigonometry was developed along with astronomy. In the field of chemistry, Jabir Ibn Haiyan introduced the meaning of experimentation, leading from alchemy to modern chemistry.
Additionally, the Golden Age was characterized by technological, architectural, and artistic achievements. Methods for irrigation including underground channels, windmills, and waterwheels were some of the Arabic inventions.
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