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|موضوع: Introduction to Wireshark One’s understanding of network protocols can often be greatly deepened by “seeing protocols in action” and by “playing around with protocols” – observing the sequence of messages exchanged between two protocol entities, delving الأربعاء نوفمبر 11, 2015 2:30 am|| |
Introduction to Wireshark
One’s understanding of network protocols can often be greatly deepened by “seeing protocols in action” and by “playing around with protocols” – observing the sequence of messages exchanged between two protocol entities, delving down into the details of protocol operation, and causing protocols to perform certain actions and then observing these actions and their consequences. This can be done in simulated scenarios or in a “real” network environment such as the Internet. In these Wireshark labs, we’ll take the latter approach. You’ll be running various network applications in different scenarios using a computer on your desk, at home, or in a lab. You’ll observe the network protocols in your computer “in action,” interacting and exchanging messages with protocol entities executing elsewhere in the Internet. Thus, you and your computer will be an integral part of these “live” labs. You’ll observe, and you’ll learn, by doing.
The basic tool for observing the messages exchanged between executing protocol entities is called a packet sniffer . As the name suggests, a packet sniffer captures (“sniffs”) messages being sent/received from/by your computer; it will also typically store and/or display the contents of the various protocol fields in these captured messages. A packet sniffer itself is passive. It observes messages being sent and received by applications and protocols running on your computer, but never sends packets itself. Similarly, received packets are never explicitly addressed to the packet sniffer. Instead, a packet sniffer receives a copy of packets that are sent/received from/by application and protocols executing on your machine.
Figure 1 shows the structure of a packet sniffer. At the right of Figure 1 are the protocols (in this case, Internet protocols) and applications (such as a web browser or ftp client) that normally run on your computer. The packet sniffer, shown within the dashed rectangle in Figure 1 is an addition to the usual software in your computer, and consists of two parts. The packet capture library receives a copy of every link-layer frame that is sent from or received by your computer. In Figure 1, the assumed physical media is an Ethernet, and so all upper layer protocols are eventually encapsulated within an Ethernet frame but of course we can capture other types of frames as WiFi frames.
Figure 1: Packet sniffer structure
The second component of a packet sniffer is the packet analyzer , which displays the contents of all fields within a protocol message. In order to do so, the packet analyzer must “understand” the structure of all messages exchanged by protocols. For example, suppose we are interested in displaying the various fields in messages exchanged by the HTTP protocol in Figure 1. The packet analyzer understands the format of Ethernet frames, and so can identify the IP datagram within an Ethernet frame. It also understands the IP datagram format, so that it can extract the TCP segment (or UDP) within the IP datagram. Finally, it understands the TCP segment structure, so it can extract the HTTP message contained in the TCP segment. Finally, it understands the HTTP protocol or any other application-layer protocol.
Wireshark packet sniffer [ http://www.wireshark.org/ ] allows us to display the contents of messages being sent/received from/by protocols at different levels of the protocol stack. (Technically speaking, Wireshark is a packet analyzer that uses a packet capture library in your computer). It operates in computers using Ethernet, Token-Ring, FDDI, serial (PPP and SLIP), 802.11 wireless LANs, and ATM connections (if the OS on which it's running allows Wireshark to do so).
When you run the Wireshark program, the Wireshark graphical user interface shown in Figure 2 will de displayed. Initially, no data will be displayed in the various windows.
Figure 2: Wireshark Graphical User Interface
The Wireshark interface has five major components:
• The command menus are standard pull down menus located at the top of the window. Of interest to us now are the File and Capture menus. The File menu allows you to save captured packet data or open a file containing previously captured packet data, and exit the Wireshark application. The Capture menu allows you to begin packet capture.
• The packet-listing window displays a one-line summary for each packet captured, including the packet number (assigned by Wireshark; this is not a packet number contained in any protocol’s header), the time at which the packet was captured, the packet’s source and destination addresses, the protocol type, and protocol-specific information contained in the packet. The packet listing can be sorted according to any of these categories by clicking on a column name. The protocol type field lists the highest level protocol that sent or received this packet, i.e., the protocol that is the source or ultimate sink for this packet.
• The packet-header details window provides details about the packet selected (highlighted) in the packet listing window. (To select a packet in the packet listing window, place the cursor over the packet’s one-line summary in the packet listing window and click with the left mouse button.). These details include information about the Ethernet frame (assuming the packet was sent/receiverd over an Ethernet interface) and IP datagram that contains this packet. The amount of link- layer and IP-layer detail displayed can be expanded or minimized by clicking on the plus-or-minus boxes to the left of the frame or IP datagram line in the packet details window. If the packet has been carried over TCP or UDP, TCP or UDP details will also be displayed, which can similarly be expanded or minimized. Finally, details about the highest level protocol that sent or received this packet are also provided.
• The packet-contents window displays the entire contents of the capture frame, in both ASCII and hexadecimal format.
• Towards the top of the Wireshark graphical user interface, is the packet display filter field, into which a protocol name or other information can be entered in order to filter the information displayed in the packet-listing window (and hence the packet-header and packet-contents windows). In the example below, we’ll use the packet-display filter field to have Wireshark hide (not display) packets except those that correspond to HTTP messages.
Taking Wireshark for a Test Run
The best way to learn about any new piece of software is to try it out! We’ll assume that your computer is connected to the Internet via a network interface. Do the following:
1. Start up your favorite web browser, which will display your selected homepage.
2. Start up the Wireshark software. You will initially see a window similar to that shown in Figure 2, except that no packet data will be displayed in the packet listing, packet-header, or packet-contents window, since Wireshark has not yet begun capturing packets.
3. To begin packet capture, select the Capture pull down menu and select Options. This will cause the “Wireshark: Capture Options” window to be displayed, as shown in Figure 3.
4. You can use most of the default values in this window, but uncheck “Hide capture info dialog” under Display Options. The network interfaces (i.e., the physical connections) that your computer has to the network will be shown in the Interface pull down menu at the top of the Capture Options window. In case your computer has more than one active network interface (e.g., if you have both a wireless and a wired Ethernet connection), you will need to select an interface that is being used to send and receive packets. After selecting the network interface, click Start. Packet capture will now begin - all packets being sent/received from/by your computer are now being captured by Wireshark!
5. Once you begin packet capture, a packet capture summary window will appear, as shown in Figure 4. This window summarizes the number of packets of various types that are being captured, and (importantly!) contains the Stop button that will allow you to stop packet capture.
6. After stopping the packet capture, you can capture the current trace of packets to a file simply by using the Save As... menu item from the File menu. Assign a file name (e.g., myTrace) and file extension (e,g, pcap). Then, you can open the trace my Trace.pcap in Wireshark whenever you want using the Open menu item from the File menu.
Figure 3: Wireshark Capture Options Window
Figure 4: Wireshark Packet Capture Window
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